Sunday 24 September 2023 22:32:01 PHT

Hiligaynon-English Dictionary

Search the complete text of Kaufmann's 1934 Visayan-English Dictionary.

Searching for prefix* in all English words. 72 entries found; entries 51 to 60 are shown.

pag—, A prefix used to form:

a.) The infinitive. Mahapús ang pagpatíndog sing bág-o nga baláy, kon may kwárta lang ikáw. It is easy to erect a new house, if only you have the money. Ginapílit akó sa pagkádto dídto. I must go there. Laín ang pagsógò kag laín ang pagtúman. To order and to obey are different things.

b.) The negative. Indì mo pagbuháton inâ. Don't do that. Walâ níya pagbuháta inâ. He did not do that. Walâ níya pagtón-i ang leksyón. He did not learn the lesson. Indì mo pag-ihátag sa íya iníng páhò nga línghod. Don't give him this unripe mango. Walâ silá pagsúay. They never quarrel, etc.

c.) Verbal nouns. Ang pagsálig sa Diós. Trust or confidence in God. Ang pagtóo, pagláum kag paghigúgma. Faith, hope and charity. Ang pagkádto kag pagkarí. The journey to and fro, the round or return trip, etc.

d.) The imperative. Pagtíndog na kag paglakát. Arise (Stand up) and walk. (cf. mag—).

paga—, A prefix used to form:

a.) The passive future tense, e.g. Pagabuháton ko iní. I will (shall) do this. I am going to do it. Pagahulatón ko gid siá. I will certainly wait for him. Pagasulatán ko siá sa buás. Tomorrow I am going to write him. Pagaitúnghol ko sa íya iníng sulát sa madalî nga saráng mahímò. I'll hand him this letter as soon as possible.

b.) The negative present tense of the passive voice, e.g. Ngáa man nga walâ nínyo pagasilhigí ang balatonán? Why are you not sweeping the reception room? Walâ níla pagasókla ang dútà. They are not measuring (surveying) the land. Walâ ko pagaibalígyà ang bág-o nga pinatubás ko nga kalámay. I am not selling my new sugar crop. (cf. maga—the corresponding counterpart for the active voice).

pagka—, A prefix used like pag—, but with the difference that pagka—is more used with intransitive verbs, e.g. sang pagkadúlà sang íya pányo——. When her handkerchief was lost——. But: sang pagdúlà níya sang íya pányo——. When she lost her handkerchief——. pagka—is also frequently employed in the formation of abstract nouns, e.g. pagkalisúd, pagkasádya, pagkagayón, pagkataohánon, etc.—distress, cheerfulnes, beauty, human nature, etc.
paka—, A prefix meaning:

a.) To pretend, feign, make a show or false appearance of, assume the airs of what the root implies, e.g. Indì ka magpakamanunúon, kon dílì ka manunúon nga matúod. Don't pretend to be a teacher, unless you really are a teacher. Nagpakapárì siá, ápang nasápwan sa madalî nga dílì siá párì galî. He pretended to be a priest, but it was soon found out that he was not a priest at all.

b.) To imagine, consider, think, hold something to be what the stem of the word indicates, e.g. Ginpakamaáyo níla ang amó nga pagbulút-an. They considered that to be a good law, they approved that law. Ang tanán nga nagapakasáyod (nagapakasayód) sinâ——. All those that think that they know the facts in that case——.

c.) To do or experience "really" what the root implies, e.g. Ang mga nagpakabatî sa íya——. Those that (actually) heard him——. Ang mga nagpakatiláw sang amó nga pagkáon nagasilíng nga——. Those that have (actually) tasted that food say that——. Ang mga nagpakatámbong, nagpakadáyaw, etc. Those that were present, applauded, etc. Ang Anák sang Diós nagpakatáo. The Son of God became (really, truly, verily) man.

N.B. It should be borne in mind that there are terms, as e.g. pakalisúd, etc., in which the "ka—" belongs to the stem and their meaning is consequently determined by the prefix pa—, not by paka—.

paki—, A verbal prefix denoting an attachment to, a wish, desire or love for, what the root implies, e.g. pakitábang—to desire, wish, ask for help; pakibulág—to wish for a separation or divorce, etc. Pagpaki—stands for the infinitive, nagapaki—, magapaki—, magpaki—stand for the present, future and imperative respectively. Magapaki—and nagpaki—are often shortened to maki—and naki—(cf. pakig—, maki—, naki—).
pala—, A prefix indicative of a habit or natural inclination to what is implied by the root, e.g. palaínum, palahúbug—a drunkard (inúm, hubúg); palahámbal—chatterbox, a great talker (hámbal); palanúgid—a tale-bearer, story-teller, one given or addicted to tale-bearing (panúgid); palakádlaw—one who—laughs much and often,—is always laughing (kádlaw); palahámpang—one given or addicted to sport, a sportsman (hámpang), etc. (cf. para— id.).
pan—, A prefix denoting plurality. It indicates:—

1.) an often repeated action, or an action done by way of trade or profession, e.g. Ang pamalígyà kag pamakál (pan, balígyà; pan, bakál)—Buying and selling.

2.) the way, manner, form, shape, of what the root implies, e.g. Matáas siá sing pamáa (pan, páa)—He is long-legged. Maláin ang íya pamábà (pan, bábà)—He uses bad language. His mouth is vile.

3.) the looking for, or gathering of, what the root implies, e.g. pangáhoy (pan, káhoy)—to gather wood; pangítà (pan, kítà)—to seek.

Note. In the above examples pan—has changed into pam—and pang—, the n of pan—being influenced by the initial letter of the root.

Before r no change is made, e.g. panrára.

Before d, n, s, t, the n of pan—remains unchanged, but the first letter of the root is dropped, e.g. panalók (pan, dalók); panúsnus (pan, núsnus); panabát (pan, sabát); panúluk (pan, túluk).

Before b, f, m, p, the n of pan—is changed to m, and the first letter of the root is dropped, e.g. pamáklay, (pan, báklay); pamuérsa (pan, fuérsa); pamúkmuk (pan, múkmuk); pamígos (pan, pígos).

Before k and the vowels pang—is written, and the k is dropped, e.g. pangúlbà (pan, kúlbà); pangáway (pan, áway); panginúm (pan, inúm); pangólhot (pan, ólhot); pangúrut (pan, úrut).

Before g, h, l, w, y either pan—or pang is written, e.g. pangábut or panggábut (gábut); panhálad or panghálad (halad); panlángbas or panglángbas (lángbas); panwárik or pangwárik (wárik); panyáwyaw or pangyáwyaw (yáwyaw).

For the composite forms nagpan—, magapan—, magpan—the shortened forms nan—, nang—, nang—, nam—, man—, mang—, mang—, mam—, are mostly used, the choice depending on the tense and the first letter of the root, e.g. Nagpanglakát na silá—or—nanglakát na silá. They have gone.

pangin—, A prefix expressing mostly the idea of becoming, or being changed into, what the root implies. For magapangin—and magpangin—"mangin—is often used and for nagpangin—"nangin—". Pagpanginímol—to become poor. Nanginímol siá. He became poor. Iníng diótay nga tanúm manginkáhoy (magapanginkáhoy) kunína. This small plant will finally grow or develop into a tree. Indì ka na maginúm, kay manginhubúg ikáw. Don't drink any more, or you will become fuddled. Manginmatáy siá ánay sang sa magbúhat sinâ. He would rather die than do that. He prefers death to doing that. Nanginsúbung siá sa (sang)——. He became like——.
s, The letter "S" in Visayan is pronounced as in English. Words beginning with "s" and having the prefix pan—, hi—, etc. frequently change the "s" into "n", e.g. sabát—panabát; sámput—hinámput.
t, The letter "T" in Visayan is pronounced as in English. After the prefix pan—"T" beginning a word is dropped, e.g. panábang (pan—, tábang); panikáng (pan—, tikáng); panókap (pan—, tókap); panubús (pan—, tubús). After the prefixes hi—and ha—"T" beginning a word is frequently changed into "n", e.g. hinabón (hi—, tábon); hanungúd, hanabô (ha—, tungúd, tabô) etc. etc.


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