Sunday 24 September 2023 22:09:39 PHT

Hiligaynon-English Dictionary

Search the complete text of Kaufmann's 1934 Visayan-English Dictionary.

Searching for prefix* in all English words. 72 entries found; entries 41 to 50 are shown.

nagapaka—, A prefix denoting the present tense active with the added meaning of "paka", e.g.

a.) Nagapakamaálam siá. He is assuming an air of learning, he wants to appear learned. Nagapakabungól siá. He is feigning deafness. Nagapakamanggaránon siá. He is pretending to be rich. He tries to be taken for a rich man.

b.) Nagapakamaáyo siá siníng hágnà nga kasuguán. He approves this law or ordinance. Nagapakamahál siá sang íya pagtoloóhan. He values his faith. (The corresponding forms for the infinitive, future, imperative and past are "pagpaka—, magapaka—, magpaka—and nagpaka—").

nagapam—, nagapan—, nagapang—, nagapang—, A prefix denoting the present tense active frequentative. Changes that pan— undergoes are determined by the following rules:

a.) nagapam—is used with verbs beginning with "m", "b" or "p", e.g. nagapamalá (malá); nagapamakál (bakál); nagapamángkot (pángkot). N.B. Verbs beginning with the letter "m" have the same form for the Freq. and Caus., e.g. pamalá (malá). In such cases the context has to decide the true meaning.

b.) nagapan—is used with verbs beginning with "d", "s" or "t", e.g. nagapanámgo (dámgo); nagapanílhig (sílhig); nagapanístis (tístis).

c.) nagapang—is used with verbs beginning with "h", "l" or "y", e.g. nagapanghunâhúnà (hunâhúnà); nagapanglángbas (lángbas); nagapangyáwyaw (yáwyaw).

d.) nagapang—is used with verbs beginning with a vowel or "k", e.g. nagapangámpò (ámpò); nagapangínit (ínit); nagapangúbug (úbug); nagapangótkot (kótkot); nagapangisáykísay (kisáykísay).

N.B. The corresponding forms for the past, imperative and future (nagpan—, magpan—and magapan—) are often shortened into nam—, nan—, nang—, nang—; mam—, man—, mang—, mang—, e.g. nangáyò (nagpangáyò); nangabúdlay (nagpangabúdlay); nanúmbung (nagpanúmbung); mamányos (magapamányos); mangutána (magpangutána), etc. etc.

naka—, A prefix denoting the past tense active and corresponding to the future maka—. Naka— is chiefly used instead of nag—, when an action is either intransitive, problematic or potential, e.g. Nagtabók siá sa subâ. He crossed the river. (A simple statement of fact). Nakatabók siá sa subâ. He actually did cross or could cross the river (there having been a doubt whether he would, or could, cross the river).
naki—, A prefix denoting the past tense (nagpaki—) and corresponding to máki— for the future, e.g. nakibáis, nakibúlig, nakiló-oy, nakidúmug, nakitábang siá. (cf. paki—).
nanag—, A prefix denoting the past tense active (nag—), but only used when the agents are many, e.g. nanagtinubiganáy, nanaghinúgyaw, nanagpinanagoáy, nanaglagsanáy, nanagdinayándáyan, nanaghinutikáy silá, etc. They played the "water-game", they frolicked or made merry, they played hide and seek, they ran races together, they roamed about, they whispered to each other, etc. (túbig, húgyaw, tágò, lagás, dayándáyan, hutík, etc.). (cf. nag—).
nangin—, A verbal prefix. See mangin.
nasig—, A prefix indicating that an action is equally done by a number of persons, together, in unison, all doing the same thing. Nasig—(shortened from nagpasig—) stands for the past, masig—for the future and pagpasig—for the infinitive. Nasigkaládlaw silá nga tanán. They all of them laughed together. Nasigpalangítà silá sing palamúgnan. They were all looking for work. Nasigalámot silá, nasigkaláwat silá, etc. They all contributed, they all went to Holy Communion, etc. (nasi—id.).
olo—,—olo—, A diminutive particle that is either prefixed (to words beginning with a vowel) or inserted (between the first consonant and the first vowel of words beginning with a consonant), e.g. oloáslum (áslum); oloánggid (ánggid): bolobúg-at (búg-at); dolodápya (dápya); tolotámbok (támbok); nagtolotáwhay (táwhay), etc. etc.
p, The letter "p" in Visayan is pronounced as in English.

In spelling foreign words in which "f" occurs the Visayans frequently substitute "p" for "f", as they have no sound in their language corresponding to the consonant "f", e.g. Pebréro (Febrero); punsyón (función); púnda (funda), etc.

In words beginning with "p" preceded by the prefix "pan—" the "p" of the root is dropped, and the "n" of the "pan—" is changed into "m", e.g. pamúnò (pan—, púnò); pamángkot (pan—, pángkot), etc.

pa—, A very frequently used prefix with the following meanings:

1) Movement or direction towards, e.g. paidálum—downwards, down; paibábaw—upward, up; nagpamanílà siá. He has gone to Manila. Nagapabugál siá. He is on the road to pride, i.e. he is getting proud, is haughty, overbearing. Nagapadayáw siá. He is vain. Nagapabungúl siá. He is acting as if he were deaf, is stubborn, disobedient, heedless, does not listen, etc.

2) Efficient cause, e.g. Sín-o ang nagpatíndog sang halígi? Who set up the post? Ang isá ka alakáyo saráng makapakádlaw sa mga táo. A joker can make people laugh. Ginpahalín níla ang matámad nga sologoón. They discharged the lazy servant. Patalumá ang binángon. Sharpen the bolo. Pinabálik níya ang sulát. He sent the letter back, etc.

3) Order or command (quite frequently to be performed by a third person), e.g. Patáwga si Pédro (sa) kay Huán. Ipatawág si Huán (sa) kay Pédro. Order (Get) Peter to call John. Padálhi akó sing túbig. Send me some water. Get someone to bring me water. Palutói akó sing panyága. Have dinner prepared for me. Order someone to cook the dinner for me. Palutóa ang kosinéro sang panyága. Ipalútò ang panyága sa kosinéro. Order the cook to get dinner ready. Ipaábat siá. Send somebody—after him,—to call him here, etc.

4) Toleration or sufferance, e.g. Pahampangá lang dirâ ang mga bátà. Just let the boys play there. Pabayái (Pabáy-i) lang silá. Leave them alone. Let them do what they like. Pasakayá (Pasákya) siá sa ímo salákyan. Give him a lift in your vehicle. Let him ride in your car (carriage). Indì mo silá pagpasúgtan. Don't allow them to have their will. Don't grant their request. Don't approve their proposal. Indì ka magpabúang, magpadáyà, etc. Don't allow yourself to be fooled, cheated, etc. Mapapuút pa akó ánay sang ulán kag ogáling mapadáyon akó sang ákon panglakátan. I'll let the rain stop first (I am waiting for the rain to stop) and then I shall continue the march, etc.

N.B. It should be borne in mind that the context alone can determine the exact meaning of pa—(usually, for convenience' sake, called the Causative). Hence in this dictionary when words with the prefix pa—occur, the translation does not exclude meanings other than the one given.


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