Monday 02 October 2023 09:11:11 PHT

Hiligaynon-English Dictionary

Search the complete text of Kaufmann's 1934 Visayan-English Dictionary.

Searching for prefix* in all English words. 72 entries found; entries 21 to 30 are shown.

k, This letter has the same sound as the English "c" in "cat, come, cut, fact, etc.", but is pronounced a little softer than "ck" in "lack, pack, struck, etc.".

Modern writers almost exclusively employ "k", where formerly "c" (before "a", "o", "u", all consonants and hyphens, and at the end of words) and "qu" (before "e" and "i") were used. Bearing this in mind it is easy to find in this dictionary expressions originally written according to the old spelling, as acó, caácò, catacá, cácac, bác-hò, bác-it, báquid, quíquic, etc., under akó, kaákò, kataká, kákak, bákhò, bák-it, bákid, kíkik, etc.

The prefixes pan—, hi—, ha—, etc., if composed with words beginning with the letter "k", become pang—, hing—, hang—, etc. and the "k" drops out, e.g. karós—pangarós; kaláyo—hingaláyo; kuyús—hanguyús, etc.

kádto, (H) To go there, go somewhere not quite near. Diín ka makádto? Where are you going? Diín ka magkádto? Where did you go to?—or—Where have you been? May kadtoán balá ikáw? Perhaps you have to go somewhere? Kadtoí siá. Go to him. N.B. The particle "pa" is often prefixed to "kádto" without additional meaning. Ang pagpakádto kag pagpakarí. The journey to and fro—or—there and back.
ma—, A shortened form of the verbal prefix maga—denoting the active future, e.g. Si Fuláno maabút (magaabút) sa buás. N.N. will arrive to-morrow. Karón sa hápon masulát (magasulát) akó sa íya. This afternoon I will write him.
ma—, A shortened form of the verbal prefix magaka—; quite frequently this ma—also stands for magka—and even for nagaka—. Madúla inâ, kon dílì nímo pagtipígan sing maáyo. It will get lost, unless you guard it well. (madúlàmagakadúlà). Andam ka, agúd índì ka mahúlug. Look out or you may fall down. (mahúlugmagkahúlug). Mahádluk siá. He is afraid, is getting afraid. (mahádluknagakahádluk).
ma—, The potential verbal prefix of the passive voice denoting the possibility or feasibility, and if negatived, the impossibility of what the root implies, e.g. Mahímò inâ. That can be done. That is possible. Dílì (índì) mahímò inâ. That cannot be done. That is impossible. Indì maíro inâ. That cannot be tolerated. That is intolerable. This ma— is the counterpart of the active maka—.
ma—, A prefix forming adjectives in three ways, namely:

1) by simple attachment to the root, e.g. mahágpok—crisp; malínaw—calm; matahúm—beautiful. (cf. hágpok, línaw, tahúm).

2) by adding also the suffix—on, e.g. malalíson—disobedient; malimóton—forgetful; mapigusón—oppressing. (cf. lális, límot, pígus).

3) by superadding the particle "in" which is placed before the first vowel of the root, e.g. malinapáson—omitting, neglecting the performance of; mabinalák-on—careful, concerned, interested; matinipígon—preserving, saving, guarding. (cf. lápas, balákà, típig).

N.B. Other formations of adjectives see under mag-, manog-, maki-.

m, The letter "M" in Visayan is pronounced as in English. The letter "M" is one of the labials b, p, m, and as it is the easiest to pronounce, it often takes the place of the other two:

1) after the prefixes pan—, man—, magapan—, etc. But note that the final "n" of these prefixes is dropt, e.g. pamulúng (pan-, bulúng); pamúlong (pan-, púlong), etc. etc.

2) after the prefixes hi—and ha—, e.g. himungá (hi—, búnga); himúlbul (hi—, búlbul); hamulák (ha—, búlak); hámtang (ha—, butáng), etc. etc.

mag—, A prefix used chiefly in the following ways:

1) to denote the active infinitive, e.g. Hándà na kamó maglakát? Are you now ready to set out? Malúyag akó magtán-aw sinâ. I want to see that. Magtuón ka magsulát sing maáyo. Learn to write well.

2) to form the active imperative, e.g. Maghalín ka dirâ. Be off. Go away from there. Magtúman ka siní. Do this. Fulfil this faithfully. Magkáon na kamó. Now, eat your meal. Go to dinner. Indì ka magbúhat sinâ. Don't do that. Dílì ka magsúgid sinâ sa íya. Don't tell him that.

3) To form the active negative with "índì", expressing a disinclination, objection or lack of intention, e.g. Indì akó magbayó. I am not going to pound rice. I will not pound rice. Nanáy, si Hosé índì magtúman sang ímo nga ginsógò. Mother, José is not doing—or—will not do what you told him. Dì (dílì) siá magtámbong, konó, sa ámon bádù. They say that he is not taking part in our entertainment.

4) To form the past active negative with "walâ". Walâ siá magabút. He did not come. Walâ siá magkádto dídto. He has not gone there. Walâ pa siá magpanyága. He has not had his dinner yet.

5) to form nouns (frequently by reduplicating the first syllable of the root, e. g. magtutúon—teacher (tuón); magbubúlung—doctor, physician (bulúng); magsusúlat—writer (sulát); mag-amáy—father; mag-anák—child, son, daughter; mag-ilóy—mother; magluyó—partner; etc. etc.

maga—, A verbal prefix used to denote:

1) the active future, e.g. Buás magalakát akó sa Ilóngílong. To-morrow I will walk to Iloilo. Karón sa hápon magaabút gíkan sa Manílà ang akon amáy. This afternoon my father will arrive from Manila. Kon bayáan mo dirâ sa ínit ang bíno tínto magaáslum. If you leave the red wine there in the heat of the sun, it will go sour. (cf. ma-).

2) a present negation with "walâ", e.g. Si Hosé walâ magtánum kahápon, walâ man siá magatánum karón kag índì man siá magtánum buás. José did not plant rice yesterday, neither is he planting rice to-day nor will he do so to-morrow. This "maga-" under 2) is never shortened into "ma-".

maka—, A prefix used in the following ways:

1) To form the potential future tense of the active voice (cf. ma- for the passive voice), e.g. Makabúhat ikáw sinâ? Are you, or shall you, be able to do that? Makadángat siá sang íya nga ginatúyò, kon mapísan siá. He will be able to obtain his desire, if he is earnest about it. Makabáyad na siá sang íya útang, kay dakû ang sináplid níya sa pangomérsyo. He can now pay his debt, for he has made a large profit in business. Walâ siá makaabút, kay madámol ang ulán. He could not come, for there was a heavy rain. Indì siá makahalín. He cannot leave or get away. N.B. Quite frequently this "maka-", particularly in verbs expressive of any mental or sensitive operation, has the meaning of the present, e.g. Makahibaló ka siní? Do you understand this? Makabatî ikáw sang túnug sang linggánay? Do you hear the sound of the bell? Makakítà na akó sa íya dirâ. Now I see him over there. (cf. naka-).

2) to form adjectives meaning "able to, capable of, giving rise to or causing" what the root implies. "Maka-" is either simply prefixed to the root, e.g. "makaákò—powerful, mighty (ákò) or, as is more frequently the case, the first syllable of the root is reduplicated and then "maka-" prefixed, e.g. "makalilípay—causing joy or pleasure, joyful, pleasing (lípay); makalilísang—inspiring terror, causing great fear, terrible, shocking (lísang); makangingíl-ad—exciting nausea, loathsome (ngíl-ad), etc.

3) to form multiples corresponding to the English -times, e.g. makalíbo—a thousand times; makaduhákapúlò—twenty times; makaisá—once, etc.


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